Would you like to tell us about a lower price? If you are a seller for this product, would you like to suggest updates through seller support? The Mukhtaar al-Qudr is one of the most celebrated and influential treatises in any Muslim school of methodology and thought and is the foundation for the anaf school. It is both the first source for scholars and a manual for the general reader. This is its first ever complete translation in English.
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Islamic Rituals. Offering [zakat] is required for the free, coherent, mature Muslim when he owns free and clear at least a taxable minimum for the period of a year. Offering is not required for the youth, the incoherent, nor the indentured servant [mukatib]. If a person has a debt that encompasses all of his property, there is no offering for him. If his property is more than the debt, he makes an offering on the surplus if it reaches the taxable minimum.
There is no offering with regard to houses which are used for dwelling, clothing on the body, furniture in the dwelling, mounts used for riding, domestic servants, and arms which are used. The payment of the alms is only permitted with an intention linked to the payment or linked to setting aside the required amount. If a person donates all of his property but does not intend to give alms, the obligation of offering is dropped from him.
There is no almsgiving for less than five camels. When they amount to between five and nine free-grazing camels, and a year passes, then a sheep is offered. When there are between ten and fourteen, two sheep. When there are between fifteen and nineteen, three sheep. When there are between twenty and twenty-four, four sheep.
When there are between thirty-six and forty-five, a female camel whose mother is again lactating [bint labun]. When there are between forty-six and sixty, a female camel fit for being put to use [hiqqah]. When there are between sixty-one and seventy-five, a female camel losing its first set of teeth [jadha'ah]. When there are between seventy-six and ninety, two female camels whose mothers are again lactating.
When there are between ninety-one and one hundred twenty, two female camels fit for being put to use. Then the obligation recommences. Thus, along with two female camels fit for being put to use, at five camels over one hundred twenty a sheep is offered, at ten two sheep, at fifteen three sheep, at twenty four sheep, at twenty-five a female camel whose mother has rejoined the breeding stock, until one hundred fifty when it is three female camels fit for being put to use.
Thus, at five camels over one hundred fifty a sheep is offered, at ten two sheep, at fifteen, three sheep, at twenty four sheep, at twenty-five a female camel whose mother has rejoined the breeding stock, and at thirty-six a female camel fit for being put to use.
When they amount to between one hundred ninety-six and two hundred there are four female camels loosing their first set of teeth. Then the obligation recommences for the last time, just as it recommenced in fives after one hundred fifty. The Bactrian camel and the Arabian camel are equal. There is no almsgiving for less than thirty bovines.
When there are thirty free-grazing bovines, and a year passes, a male or female calf [tabi'] is given. For forty, a bull or a cow [musinnah] is given. According to Abu Hanifah, when there are more than forty, until sixty, the person giving alms is required, for the additional ones, to the extent that for one he gives a quarter tithe of a female calf having teeth, for two half a tithe of a female calf having teeth, for three three-fourths a tithe of a female calf having teeth, and for four a tithe of a female calf having teeth.
Abu Yusuf and Muhammad say there is nothing for the additional ones until they reach sixty, in which case there are given two male or female calves. For seventy there is given a cow and a male calf, for eighty two cows, at ninety three female calves, and at one hundred two male calves and a cow. Over this the obligation changes for every ten from a male calf to a cow. The cow and the buffalo are equal. There is no almsgiving for less than forty sheep. When there are between forty and one hundred twenty free-grazing sheep and a year passes, a sheep is given.
When one is added up until two hundred, two sheep are given. When one is added, three sheep are given. When it reaches four hundred, four sheep are given.
Then for every hundred, one sheep is given. Sheep and goats are equal. When there are free-grazing horses, male and female, their owner has a choice. If he wants, he gives one dinar for every horse, or if he wants he appraises them and gives five dirhems for every one hundred dirhems [of their value]. There is no offering for male horses alone. Abu Yusuf and Muhammad say there is no offering for horses nor for anything in the way of mules or donkeys unless they are for commerce.
According to Abu Yusuf and Muhammad there is no almsgiving for suckling camels, lambs still carried by their mother, or calves under a year old unless older ones are with them. Abu Yusuf says in these cases one of them is given. If a bull is required from a person, and he does not have one, the alms-collector takes a higher amount of alms and returns the surplus, or he takes a lower amount and keeps the surplus.
The postponement of the values is permitted for offerings. There is no almsgiving for working animals and stall-fed animals. The alms-collector does not take the best of the assets, nor the worst of them, but he takes the mean. If a person has a taxable minimum of a single type and then it increases during the course of a year, he adds it to his property and offers it accordingly.
The free-grazing animal is that which is provided for by the pasture for the majority of the year. If he stall-feeds the animal for half a year or more then there is no offering for it. According to Abu Hanifah and Abu Yusuf the offering is due on the taxable minimum disregarding the excess. Muhammad says that the offering is due on the taxable minimum and the excess.
If the assets perish after the requirement of the offering, the requirement of the offering is dropped. If he, being the owner of the taxable minimum, pays the offering before the course of a year is up, it is permitted. There is no almsgiving for less than two hundred dirhems.
When there are two hundred dirhems and a year passes, there are five dirhems offered. There is nothing for the surplus until the amount reaches forty dirhems, then there is an additional dirhem. Then for every forty dirhems in value there is a dirhem offered. Abu Yusuf and Muhammad say that whatever is over two hundred, its offering is computed in this way.
When there is a predominance of silver in minted coins, they they are offered according to the regime of silver. If there is a predominance of base metal in them, then they are according to the regime of merchandise.
It is considered that its value constitutes a taxable minimum. There is no almsgiving for less than twenty mithqals of gold. When there are twenty mithqals and a year passes, there is half a mithqal offered. Then for every four mithqals, two qirats. According to Abu Hanifah, there is no almsgiving for less than four mithqals. For gold and silver ore, as well as jewelry and vessels made from it, there is an offering. Offering is required for commercial merchandise whatever it might be when its value reaches a taxable minimum of gold or minted coins, its value calculated according to which of them is more beneficial for the poor and the destitute.
When there is a whole taxable minimum at the two ends of the year, but there is less between the two ends, there is no dropping of the offering. The value of the merchandise is added to the gold and the silver. Likewise, the gold is added to the silver in value until the taxable minimum is reached according to Abu Hanifah. Abu Yusuf and Muhammad say that the gold is not added to the silver in value, but added in number.
Offering of Crops and Fruits. Abu Hanifah says that for the small and the large things that the earth sprouts there is a tithe, regardless of whether it is irrigated or watered by the sky, excepting firewood, reed stalks, and grass.
Abu Yusuf and Muhammad say that the tithe is only required for perennial fruit, when it amounts to five loads, a load being sixty sa's according to a sa' of the Prophet. According to Abu Yusuf and Muhammad there is no tithe for vegetables. For that which is watered by bucket, waterwheel, or waterscoop there is half a tithe according to the opinions of Abu Yusuf and Muhammad.
Abu Yusuf says that for that which is not measured in loads, like saffron and cotton, a tithe is required when its value reaches the value of five loads based on the minimum of what comes under the designation of a load. Muhammad says that a tithe is required when the produce reaches five loads based on the maximum of that by which its type is evaluated.
Five bales are considered equivalent for cotton, for saffron five bundles. For honey there is a tithe, when it is taken from the ground upon which tithe is levied, whether a little or a lot. Abu Yusuf says that there is nothing due for it until it amounts to ten skins. Muhammad says [there is nothing due for it until it amounts to] five parts, a part being thirty-six Iraqi ratls. There is no tithe for produce taken from ground upon which land tax [kharaj] is levied. Concerning the things that are Permitted.
God the exalted said, "the alms are only for the poor and the destitute The poor is he to whom there is the least of things. The destitute is he to whom there is nothing. The worker gives [the alms] to the prayer leader, if he works, according to his labor. Servitude refers to those working their way toward manumission according to the term of their contract.
The debtor is one upon whom a debt is incumbent. The person in the way of God is he who is devoted to the military campaign [ghazah]. The wayfarer is a person who has property in his homeland while he is in another place in which he has nothing. These are the aspects of the offering. It is the responsibility of the owner to pay to every one of them, or he may confine himself to a single type. It is not permitted for him to pay the offering to a protected person [dhimmi], nor that a mosque be built with it, nor that a corpse be shrouded with it, nor that the manumission of a servant be purchased with it.
He does not pay to the rich, nor does the person offering pay his offering to his father or grandfather no matter how distant, nor to his son and his son's son no matter how distant, nor to his wife.