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From cradle-to-grave — a life cycle assessment is the systematic analysis of a product over its entire lifespan. Resources are taken from the ecosphere, emissions released into air and water, and waste is generated. During the life cycle assessment of a product, each and every aspect is taken into consideration, from raw material extraction to producing the material and manufacturing the product.
Furthermore, there is the use-phase and finally, every process at the end-of-life phase. For the product portfolio many data are to be collected and standards [ISO ] and [ISO ] provide the respective methodology and guidelines. Life cycle assessments provide detailed and transparent data on construction products and their environmental impacts.
Applications of life cycle assessments are not specified. During the first phase Defining Goal and Scope , important parameters are determined. Two essential parameters are determining the functional unit and the system boundaries. Inventory analysis is the second phase, where in an Input-Output analysis, data of resource use and emissions are collected for all processes in question. The Inventory analysis provides a large amount of data on material flow emissions, resource use , as well as energy usage, which are difficult to manage in a clearly structured way.
Impact assessment is the third phase, where data from the inventory analysis are brought together in regard to their potential environmental impact. This way, the ecological relevance of the results of the inventory assessment are easier to understand. The impact categories that are to be covered by an analysis have to be specified in the first phase Definition of Goal and Scope. This is especially important since the data collected in the inventory analysis follow the demand of the impact assessment.
The results from the inventory analysis and the impact assessment show the focus of the respective environmental impacts e. According to each life cycle assessment phase, priorities for optimization can be identified.
During the fourth phase, Evaluation , the results from the inventory analysis and the conclusions for the impact assessment are taken and recommendations are given in regard to the goal of the analysis. Life cycle assessment results are an important component of the environmental evaluation of buildings. The life cycle assessment data from the individual building products used in a building forms the basis for the environmental analysis of that building.
EPDs are an established instrument of communication for the entire construction industry, in which this data — prepared for analysis at the building level — is consolidated and transparently conveyed. It specifies the uniform publication of life cycle assessment results for building products on a European level on the basis of ISO and ISO This standard describes all principles and requirements for the evaluation of buildings with regard to their environmental quality.
The life cycle assessment is a methodological tool that is originally used in operational environmental management. The systematic analysis of all input and output streams over the entire lifespan of a product, which provides a transparent and detailed look at its potential impact on the environment. In a life cycle assessment, the complete life cycle of a product, i. Not only are the environmental effects of the production process of a product considered, but also its primary products.
Even auxiliary and raw materials and supplies, such as glue or cooling agents, flow into the analysis, as well as energy production processes, the production and supply of the necessary raw materials, and all transport. In considering the life cycle of a building product, it should not only be viewed at the level of the product itself, but must be extended to the level of the building.
Building products are not end products; their environmental effects unfold, therefore, only in connection with the building for which they were intended. Life Cycle Assessment. Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle The life cycle assessment is a methodological tool that is originally used in operational environmental management.
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DIN EN ISO 14040:2009-11
From cradle-to-grave — a life cycle assessment is the systematic analysis of a product over its entire lifespan. Resources are taken from the ecosphere, emissions released into air and water, and waste is generated. During the life cycle assessment of a product, each and every aspect is taken into consideration, from raw material extraction to producing the material and manufacturing the product. Furthermore, there is the use-phase and finally, every process at the end-of-life phase.
Life Cycle Assessment
ISO is a family of standards related to environmental management that exists to help organizations a minimize how their operations processes, etc. ISO is similar to ISO quality management in that both pertain to the process of how a product is produced, rather than to the product itself. EMAS's structure and material are more demanding, mainly concerning performance improvement, legal compliance, and reporting duties. In March , BSI Group published the world's first environmental management systems standard, BS , as part of a response to growing concerns about protecting the environment. BS supplied the template for the development of the ISO series in , which has representation from ISO committees all over the world. Prior to the development of the ISO series, organizations voluntarily constructed their own EMSs, but this made comparisons of environmental effects between companies difficult; therefore, the universal ISO series was developed. An EMS is defined by ISO as: "part of the overall management system, that includes organizational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes, and resources for developing, implementing, achieving, and maintaining the environmental policy.