HARGOBIND KHORANA BIOGRAPHY PDF

Har Gobind Khorana born was an Indian organic chemist and cowinner of the Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine. His research in chemical genetics vastly extended our understanding of how the chemicals of a cell nucleus transmit information to succeeding generations of cells. Har Gobind Khorana was born in Raipur on January 9, After obtaining a doctorate in chemistry from the University of Liverpool, he worked with V. He moved to the University of Wisconsin in and in was named to the Conrad A.

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Gobind Khorana, who rose from a childhood of poverty in India to become a biochemist and share in a Nobel Prize for his role in deciphering the genetic code, died on Wednesday in Concord, Mass. He was His death was announced by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where Dr. Khorana was a professor emeritus. Khorana, who received his early schooling from his village teacher under a tree, advanced his education through scholarships and fellowships to become an authority on the chemical synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids, the large molecules in cells that carry genetic information.

Holley of Cornell University and Marshall W. Nirenberg of the National Institutes of Health. They worked independently of one another and received the award for showing how genetic information is translated into proteins, which carry out the functions of a living cell. Their experiments looked at the nucleic acids found in RNA, a chemical in cells that translates the genetic information contained in DNA.

RNA is composed of four chemical bases, adenine, cytosine, uracil and guanine, which are represented by the letters A, C, U and G. Nirenberg discovered the first word, UUU, the code for phenylalanine. His work unambiguously confirmed that the genetic code consisted of 64 distinct three-letter words.

He and Dr. Nirenberg discovered that some of the words told a cell where to begin reading the code, and where to stop. In , Dr. Khorana reported a second breakthrough: the construction of the first artificial gene, using off-the-shelf chemicals.

Four years later, he announced that he had gotten an artificial gene to function in a bacterial cell. The ability to synthesize DNA was central to advances in genetic engineering and the development of the biotechnology industry. Thomas P. Sakmar, a professor at Rockefeller University and a former student. One former student was involved in the creation of Applied Biosystems, which developed equipment used to decode the human genome.

Har Gobind Khorana was born in the village of Raipur in the Punjab region, which is now part of Pakistan. Not certain of the date, he said he was probably born on Jan. He was the youngest of five children of a Hindu tax clerk for the British colonial government, who was dedicated to educating his children. Khorana wrote. His aptitude for science was evident from the start.

He received a scholarship to study chemistry at Punjab University, although he had been too shy to attend the required admissions interview. After earning a doctorate in organic chemistry from Liverpool University in England in , he spent a year doing postdoctoral research at the Federal Institute of Technology in Switzerland, where he secretly took up residence in a laboratory until some financing came through.

He received a research fellowship at Cambridge University, a center for the study of proteins and nucleic acids, where James D. Watson and Francis H.

Crick would discover the double-helix structure of DNA in Khorana was drawn to the field. In , he was recruited to the British Columbia Research Council in Vancouver to join a group working on nucleic acids. He developed a new method of synthesizing nucleotides, and achieved international recognition for synthesizing coenzyme A, which is involved in converting fats to energy.

His move to Canada coincided with his marriage to Esther Elizabeth Sibler, whom he had met in Switzerland. His wife died in Their daughter Emily Anne died in His survivors include another daughter, Julia Elizabeth, and a son, Dave Roy. His lab included researchers from 27 countries with expertise in basic chemistry, molecular biology, enzymology and biochemistry, a multidisciplinary effort unusual for its time.

Khorana became an American citizen in He joined the M. Among the honors Dr. Khorana received were the Lasker Award for basic medical research in and the National Medal of Science in Khorana, an unassuming man, shied from the spotlight and did not like talking on the phone. In the weeks before he received the National Medal of Science, a stack of message slips piled up on his desk with increasingly urgent messages that the White House had called and that he should call back, Dr.

Sakmar said. With the ceremony date fast approaching, a representative of the White House tracked down Dr. Khorana at a scientific meeting and told him he would be receiving the award. Khorana assured him he would attend.

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Har Gobind Khorana Facts

Gobind Khorana, who rose from a childhood of poverty in India to become a biochemist and share in a Nobel Prize for his role in deciphering the genetic code, died on Wednesday in Concord, Mass. He was His death was announced by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where Dr. Khorana was a professor emeritus. Khorana, who received his early schooling from his village teacher under a tree, advanced his education through scholarships and fellowships to become an authority on the chemical synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids, the large molecules in cells that carry genetic information.

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H. Gobind Khorana, 89, Nobel-Winning Scientist, Dies

Connections PCR. Khorana was one of the first scientists to demonstrate the role of nucleotides in protein synthesis and helped crack the genetic code. He also helped develop custom-designed pieces of artificial genes and methods that anticipated the invention of the polymerase chain reaction PCR process, a biochemical technology used to amplify a single or a few copies of a piece of DNA. Har Gobind Khorana working in his laboratory at Wisconsin-Madison, late s. Photo credit: University of Wisconsin-Madison.

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Khorana, Har Gobind (1922- )

Nirenberg and Robert W. Holley for research that showed the order of nucleotides in nucleic acids , which carry the genetic code of the cell and control the cell's synthesis of proteins. He became a naturalized citizen of the United States in , [7] and received the National Medal of Science in His father was a patwari , a village agricultural taxation clerk in the British Indian government. In his autobiography, Khorana wrote this summary: "Although poor, my father was dedicated to educating his children and we were practically the only literate family in the village inhabited by about people. He attended D.

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