This title has been written by authors and academics who have a wealth of experience within different sectors of the industry. Online subscribers and course customers are entitled to free UK Postage. Please log in to apply this offer. He then began working as a part-time lecturer in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the Royal London Hospital in , while embarking on a medical degree at University College London. Douglas has recently been appointed honorary lecturer at the Royal College of Surgeons. EMQs for Dentistry.
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The information contained within this book was obtained by the author from reliable sources. However, while every effort has been made to ensure its accuracy, no responsibility for loss, damage or injury occasioned to any person acting or refraining from action as a result of information contained herein can be accepted by the publishers or author. Pastest Online Revision, Books and Courses Pastest provides online revision, books and courses to help medical students and doctors maximise their personal performance in critical exams and tests.
For further details contact: Tel: Fax: www. Douglas graduated from Cardiff Dental Hospital and completed various hospital and practice jobs. He then spent four years working as a part-time lecturer in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery whilst completing his medicine degree at University College London. His junior medical jobs were completed at Southampton, and specialist training in the West Midlands. He has been awarded an ADEE mature educators award as well as the inaugural Inter-professional Educators award in His research has involved working with inter-professional teams in developing haptic simulation for dental, medical, nursing and veterinary professionals.
He has published over articles including two books, exploring issues on inter-professionalism, simulation, technology enhance learning, sleep apnoea and the role of the Dental Team in identifying victims of domestic violence. He has delivered and designed teaching programmes for postgraduate dentists in junior hospital posts in oral and maxillofacial surgery across the UK.
He has also been involved in Residency programmes in Canada. Introduction EMQs are an interesting way of testing knowledge. However, EMQs are difficult to write in a way which enables the student to narrow down some subjects and the way in which they can be examined.
This book aims to cover a large number of topics which are commonly questioned in dentistry examinations. The answers and explanations should help students increase their knowledge and also identify areas which require more work. Hopefully this book will be a useful tool for revision. The explanations have been revised to allow the book to be used as a revision aid as well as practice questions and is not only aimed at postgraduates and core trainees but also final year dental students.
You may use each option once, more than once or not at all. On clinical examination the tooth is supra-occluded, and on radiographic examination a horizontal dark line is evident across the apical third of the root.
She now says that the upper left central incisor tooth is tender; on clinical examination the tooth is firm, and no radiographic changes are evident. The upper left lateral incisor is now supra-occluded. On clinical examination the tooth is mobile, and radiographically there is a widened periodontal ligament space. Repeat several times.
Slightly rotate the brush and gradually move it occlusally B Roll brush occlusally, maintaining contact with gingivae, then the tooth surface C Scrub in antero-posterior direction, keeping brush horizontal D Vibrate the brush, not changing the position of the bristles E Vibrate the brush while moving it apically into the gingival margin F With the teeth in occlusion, move the brush in a rotary motion against the maxillary and mandibular tooth surfaces and gingival margins For each of the following tooth-brushing techniques, choose the option that describes the technique from the list above.
The plane through menton which forms a tangent to the inferior border of 3 the angle of the mandible. Slightly rotate the brush occlusally during the procedure. He is cooperative and his first permanent molars have erupted. The tooth is vital.
Child had recurrent ear and chest infections. Normally developing infants can only drink from a cup at about 12 months, and dentists should give appropriate advice about avoiding sugary drinks in bottles at night for infants. Walking independently usually occurs at 15 months and running at 24 months. At five years a child should be able to tie their own shoe laces. Lack of skills especially in older children may also be due to parental neglect.
Initial manifestations of Haemophilus meningitis, seen in more than half of all cases of Haemophilus influenzae type b Hib meningitis, include altered cry, change in mentation, nausea or vomiting, fever, headache, photophobia, irritability, anorexia and seizures. Polio or infantile paralysis is spread from person to person by oral faecal route.
Oral vaccination is effective in preventing this serious disease. Heaf and Mantoux tests may be used to check immunity. Rubella or German measles causes a pink-red rash with high temperature. The consequences are serious if a pregnant woman develops symptoms, with the fetus at risk of deafness, cataracts and heart defects, also known as congenital rubella syndrome CRS.
Varicella zoster causes chicken pox in children — a mild, common childhood illness with a characteristic rash. The majority of fetuses with Edward syndrome die before birth. A high number of fetuses with Patau syndrome do not survive birth; those that do often have microcephaly, spinal and ocular defects. Turner syndrome affects only females; they often have a short webbed neck, low set ears, small in stature but normal intelligence.
Individuals with Pierre Robin syndrome have facial malformations, cleft palate, retrognathia and glossoptosis. Pierre Robin sequence may be caused by genetic anomalies at chromosome 2. Dentists are sometimes the first health care workers to recognise individuals with syndromes from their dental and facial characteristics.
International Caries Detection and Assessment System ICDAS-II Code Criteria 0 Sound tooth surface after prolonged air drying more than 5 seconds First visual change in enamel after prolonged air drying more than 5 1 seconds 2 Distinct visual change in enamel seen when wet Localised enamel breakdown seen when wet but no signs of dentine 3 involvement 4 Underlying dark shadow from dentine 5 Distinct cavity with visible dentine Extensive more than half of surface distinct cavity with visible 6 dentine 1.
The trauma has caused the coronal two-thirds to separate, resulting in the supra-occlusion. If the tooth is only minimally displaced and relatively firm, it may be kept under review and may exfoliate as normal. If the teeth are firm and not displaced into the developing tooth germ, spontaneous re- eruption usually occurs. If it does not re-erupt, then ankylosis is likely and extraction may be necessary to prevent ectopic eruption of the secondary successor.
If only enamel and dentine are involved, it is considered uncomplicated; however, if the pulp is involved, it is considered a complicated fracture. Uncomplicated crown fractures can generally be restored and monitored. If complicated by pulpal involvement, pulp capping or pulpotomy may be considered, depending upon the size of the pulpal exposure and length of time before treatment has been sought.
However, if seen early after the trauma, gentle repositioning may be possible with finger pressure. If seen late after the trauma, extraction may be considered. Repeat several 3 A times.
Slightly rotate the brush and gradually move it occlusally The most accepted method is the Bass technique. It is usually easier and safer if you first place the brush parallel with the long axis of the tooth.
Count at least 10 vibrations. Take care to overlap placement. Tooth Eruption dates years Mandibular first permanent molar 5—6 Maxillary first permanent molar 6—7 Maxillary first permanent premolar 10—11 Mandibular second permanent premolar 11—12 Mandibular second permanent molar 12—13 1.
An extruded tooth should be replaced in the correct anatomical position using digital pressure under local anaesthetic. Deciduous teeth should not be reimplanted, and therefore they do not require splinting. If a subluxed tooth is not mobile, then splinting is not required but if it is mobile and there is an associated alveolar bone fracture, then 3—5 weeks of splinting is required.
Start with examination, then topical fluoride application, then a minimal restoration, and then until local anaesthetic is accepted. Reinforcement is using plenty of encouragement for positive behaviour from the child, e. You should know the definitions of the various anatomical points on the face to be able to find them on the cephalogram. This topic is further covered in Chapter 4. Between 6 months and 2 years of age the child should have supplementation only if there is less than 0.
In this case the dosage should be 0. Between 2 and 4 years of age the dose should be 0. Over 4 years of age the dose should be 1. Preventive advice is often more valuable than the physical treatment provided. A good brushing technique is important, so that all teeth are cleaned properly and not harmed by an incorrect technique. It is unrealistic that a 4-year-old child would be able to cope with six extractions under local anaesthetic, so a general anaesthetic is more likely in this scenario. Calcification dates Tooth months First molars Birth Maxillary central incisors 3—4 Maxillary central and mandibular lateral incisors 3—4 Maxillary lateral incisors 10—12 Mandibular canines 4—5 Maxillary first premolars 18—21 Mandibular first premolars 21—24 Maxillary second premolars 24—27 Maxillary canines 4—5 Mandibular second premolars 27—30 Second molars 30—36 Third molars 80— 1.
The trick question is Q 3, where you must decide on the basis of the relationship of the central incisors and disregard the positioning of the lateral incisors. Aciclovir can be used in herpes, but the majority of cases can usually be managed with fluids, analgesia and reassurance. Flucloxacillin is used to treat impetigo, a common bacterial infection.
Pneumonia in children is either viral or responds well to amoxicillin. Eczema is treated with hydrocortisone, emollients and antihistamines to reduce the itchiness. Asthma is treated with salbutamol, betamethasone and if severe, oral steroids. Q 4 describes amelogenesis imperfecta rather than dentinogenesis imperfecta where the enamel is more or less normal but chips off because the bond to the dentine is weak.
Tetracycline is the classic cause of drug- induced intrinsic staining. The hint in the question is that the child has had recurrent chest and ear infections. She has noticed excessive salivation and wheezing when supine. She exhibits spoon-shaped nails and has a smooth tongue. A neck swelling is evident. She is very underweight but considers that she needs to lose more weight.
EMQs for Dentistry ,2nd edition
EMQs for Dentistry