Alrededor de esta casa se expropian varios edificios mediando indemnizaciones financiadas por el Rey. En ella se adaptan las diversas formas de la caridad a las necesidades urbanas, en el caso que nos ocupa proporcionando albergue y comida a estudiantes provenientes de clases pobres de las ciudades. A tal efecto, dispuso la reina Juana que se destinasen de sus bienes 2. Algo que en la Sorbona era entonces desconocido.
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Originally considered a physiocrat , he is today best remembered as an early advocate for economic liberalism. He was fond of verse-making, and tried to introduce into French verse the rules of Latin prosody, his translation of the fourth book of the Aeneid into classical hexameter verses being greeted by Voltaire as "the only prose translation in which he had found any enthusiasm.
For Turgot progress covers not simply the arts and sciences but, on their base, the whole of culture — manner, mores, institutions, legal codes, economy, and society.
In he was a member of the chambre royale which sat during an exile of the parlement. In and , he accompanied Gournay, the intendant of commerce, during Gournay's tours of inspection in the provinces.
Gournay's bye-word on the government's proper involvement in the economy — " laisser faire, laisser passer " — would pass into the vocabulary of economics.
In , while travelling in the east of France and Switzerland, he visited Voltaire , who became one of his chief friends and supporters. All this time he was studying various branches of science, and languages both ancient and modern.
He was already deeply imbued with the theories of Quesnay and Gournay, and set to work to apply them as far as possible in his province. His first plan was to continue the work, already initiated by his predecessor Tourny, of making a fresh survey of the land cadastre , in order to arrive at a more just assessment of the taille ; he also obtained a large reduction in the contribution of the province.
Turgot's opinion was that a compromise had to be reached between both methods. At the same time he did much to encourage agriculture and local industries, among others establishing the manufacture of porcelain at Limoges. Three of these letters have disappeared, having been sent to Louis XVI by Turgot at a later date and never recovered, but those remaining demonstrate that free trade in grain is to the interest of landowner, farmer and consumer alike, and in forcible terms demand the removal of all restrictions.
Turgot's best known work, Reflections on the Formation and Distribution of Wealth ,  was written early in the period of his intendancy, ostensibly for the benefit of two young Chinese students. Dupont, however, made various alterations in the text, in order to bring it more into accordance with Quesnay's doctrines, which led to a coolness between him and Turgot.
He also proposes a notable theory of the interest rate. In addition he demanded the complete freedom of commerce and industry. His appointment met with general approval, and was hailed with enthusiasm by the philosophes. A month later 24 August he was appointed Controller-General of Finances.
His first act was to submit to the king a statement of his guiding principles: "No bankruptcy, no increase of taxation, no borrowing. All departmental expenses were to be submitted for the approval of the controller-general, a number of sinecures were suppressed, the holders of them being compensated, and the abuse of the acquits au comptant was attacked, while Turgot appealed personally to the king against the lavish giving of places and pensions.
He also prepared a regular budget. He suppressed, however, a number of octrois and minor duties, [b] and opposed, on grounds of economy, the participation of France in the American Revolutionary War , though without success. Turgot at once set to work to establish free trade in grain, but his edict, which was signed on 13 September , met with strong opposition even in the conseil du roi. A striking feature was the preamble, setting forth the doctrines on which the edict was based, which won the praise of the philosophes and the ridicule of the wits; this Turgot rewrote three times, it is said, in order to make it "so clear that any village judge could explain it to the peasants.
But Turgot's worst enemy was the poor harvest of , which led to a slight rise in the price of bread in the winter and early spring of — In April disturbances arose at Dijon , and early in May there occurred those extraordinary bread-riots known as the guerre des farines , which may be looked upon as a first sample of the French Revolution , so carefully were they organized.
Turgot showed great firmness and decision in repressing the riots, and was loyally supported by the king throughout. His position was strengthened by the entry of Malesherbes into the ministry July All this time Turgot had been preparing his famous Six Edicts , which were finally presented to the conseil du roi January In the preamble to the former Turgot boldly announced as his object the abolition of privilege, and the subjection of all three Estates of the realm to taxation; the clergy were afterwards excepted, at the request of Maurepas.
In the preamble to the edict on the jurandes he laid down as a principle the right of every man to work without restriction.
His attacks on privilege had won him the hatred of the nobles and the parlements ; his attempted reforms in the royal household, that of the court; his free trade legislation, that of the financiers ; his views on tolerance and his agitation for the suppression of the phrase that was offensive to Protestants in the king's coronation oath, that of the clergy; and his edict on the jurandes , that of the rich bourgeoisie of Paris and others, such as the prince de Conti , whose interests were involved.
All might yet have gone well if Turgot could have retained the confidence of the king, but the king could not fail to see that Turgot had not the support of the other ministers. Even his friend Malesherbes thought he was too rash, and was, moreover, himself discouraged and wished to resign. The alienation of Maurepas was also increasing. Whether through jealousy of the ascendancy which Turgot had acquired over the king, or through the natural incompatibility of their characters, he was already inclined to take sides against Turgot, and the reconciliation between him and the queen, which took place about this time, meant that he was henceforth the tool of the Polignac clique and the Choiseul party.
About this time, too, appeared a pamphlet, Le Songe de M. Before relating the circumstances of Turgot's fall we may briefly resume his views on the administrative system. With the physiocrats, he believed in an enlightened political absolutism , and looked to the king to carry through all reforms. As to the parlements, he opposed all interference on their part in legislation, considering that they had no competency outside the sphere of justice.
He recognized the danger of the recap of the old parlement, but was unable effectively to oppose it since he had been associated with the dismissal of Maupeou and Terray, and seems to have underestimated its power. He was opposed to the summoning of the states-general advocated by Malesherbes 6 May , possibly on the ground that the two privileged orders would have too much power in them.
With this was to be combined a whole system of education, relief of the poor, etc. Louis XVI recoiled from this as being too great a leap in the dark, and such a fundamental difference of opinion between king and minister was bound to lead to a breach sooner or later.
Turgot's only choice, however, was between "tinkering" at the existing system in detail and a complete revolution, and his attack on privilege, which might have been carried through by a popular minister and a strong king, was bound to form part of any effective scheme of reform. As minister of the navy from to , he opposed financial support for the American Revolution.
He believed in the virtue and inevitable success of the revolution but warned that France could neither financially nor socially afford to overtly aid it. French intellectuals saw America as the hope of mankind and magnified American virtues to demonstrate the validity of their ideals along with seeing a chance to avenge their defeat in the Seven Years' War.
Turgot, however, emphasized what he believed were American inadequacies. He complained that the new American state constitutions failed to adopt the physiocratic principle of distinguishing for purposes of taxation between those who owned land and those who did not, the principle of direct taxation of property holders had not been followed, and a complicated legal and administrative structure had been created to regulate commerce.
On the social level, Turgot and his progressive contemporaries suffered further disappointment: a religious oath was required of elected officials and slavery was not abolished. Turgot died in before the conclusion of the war. Although disappointed, Turgot never doubted revolutionary victory. The immediate cause of Turgot's fall is uncertain. Some speak of a plot, of forged letters containing attacks on the queen shown to the king as Turgot's, of a series of notes on Turgot's budget prepared, it is said, by Necker , and shown to the king to prove his incapacity.
Others attribute it to an intrigue of Maurepas. Turgot, on hearing of this, wrote an indignant letter to the king, in which he reproached him for refusing to see him, pointed out in strong terms the dangers of a weak ministry and a weak king, and complained bitterly of Maurepas's irresolution and subjection to court intrigues; this letter the king, though asked to treat it as confidential, is said to have shown to Maurepas, whose dislike for Turgot it still further embittered.
With all these enemies, Turgot's fall was certain, but he wished to stay in office long enough to finish his project for the reform of the royal household before resigning. To his dismay, he was not allowed to do that. On 12 May he was ordered to send in his resignation. In character Turgot was simple, honourable and upright, with a passion for justice and truth. He was an idealist, his enemies would say a doctrinaire , and certainly the terms "natural rights," "natural law," frequently occur in his writings.
His friends speak of his charm and gaiety in intimate intercourse, but among strangers he was silent and awkward, and produced the impression of being reserved and disdainful.
As a statesman he has been very variously estimated, but it is generally agreed that a large number of the reforms and ideas of the Revolution were due to him; the ideas did not as a rule originate with him, but it was he who first gave them prominence. As to his position as an economist, opinion is also divided.
Oncken, to take the extreme of condemnation, looks upon him as a bad physiocrat and a confused thinker, while Leon Say considers that he was the founder of modern political economy, and that "though he failed in the 18th century he triumphed in the 19th.
I present today one of the three greatest statesmen who fought unreason in France between the close of the Middle Ages and the outbreak of the French Revolution — Louis XI and Richelieu being the two other. And not only this: were you to count the greatest men of the modern world upon your fingers, he would be of the number — a great thinker, writer, administrator, philanthropist, statesman, and above all, a great character and a great man.
And yet, judged by ordinary standards, a failure. For he was thrown out of his culminating position, as Comptroller-General of France, after serving but twenty months, and then lived only long enough to see every leading measure to which he had devoted his life deliberately and malignantly undone; the flagrant abuses which he had abolished restored, apparently forever; the highways to national prosperity, peace, and influence, which he had opened, destroyed; and his country put under full headway toward the greatest catastrophe the modern world has seen.
He now, in , at the age of twenty two, wrote Its subject was paper money. Discussing the ideas of John Law, and especially the essay of Terrasson which had supported them, he dissected them mercilessly, but in a way useful not only in those times but in these.
As regards currency inflation It still remains one of the best presentations of this subject ever made; and what adds to our wonder is that it was not the result of a study of authorities, but was worked out wholly from his own observation and thought. Up to this time there were no authorities and no received doctrine on the subject; there were simply records of financial practice more or less vicious; it was reserved for this young student, in a letter not intended for publication, to lay down for the first time the great law in which the modern world, after all its puzzling and costly experiences, has found safety.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. French economist and statesman. Portrait of Turgot by Antoine Graincourt , now in Versailles. Reflections on the Formation and the Distribution of Riches. Retrieved 16 September The Physiocrats and the World of the Enlightenment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cambridge University Press. Compare the Persian Letters of Montesquieu , with their solemn explication of European customs to an outsider, in Montesquieu a vehicle for satire.
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Tasa de granos
Originally considered a physiocrat , he is today best remembered as an early advocate for economic liberalism. He was fond of verse-making, and tried to introduce into French verse the rules of Latin prosody, his translation of the fourth book of the Aeneid into classical hexameter verses being greeted by Voltaire as "the only prose translation in which he had found any enthusiasm. For Turgot progress covers not simply the arts and sciences but, on their base, the whole of culture — manner, mores, institutions, legal codes, economy, and society. In he was a member of the chambre royale which sat during an exile of the parlement.
Anne Robert Jacques Turgot