Eric Arthur Blair 25 June — 21 January ,  better known by his pen name George Orwell , was an English novelist and essayist, journalist and critic. As a writer, Orwell produced literary criticism and poetry, fiction and polemical journalism; and is best known for the allegorical novella Animal Farm and the dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four His non-fiction works, including The Road to Wigan Pier , documenting his experience of working-class life in the north of England, and Homage to Catalonia , an account of his experiences soldiering for the Republican faction of the Spanish Civil War — , are as critically respected as his essays on politics and literature, language and culture. Orwell's work remains influential in popular culture and in political culture , and the adjective " Orwellian "—describing totalitarian and authoritarian social practices—is part of the English language, like many of his neologisms , such as " Big Brother ", " Thought Police ", " Two Minutes Hate ", " Room ", " memory hole ", " Newspeak ", " doublethink ", " proles ", " unperson ", and " thoughtcrime ".
|Published (Last):||4 March 2007|
|PDF File Size:||16.79 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||13.64 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Eric Arthur Blair 25 June — 21 January ,  better known by his pen name George Orwell , was an English novelist and essayist, journalist and critic. As a writer, Orwell produced literary criticism and poetry, fiction and polemical journalism; and is best known for the allegorical novella Animal Farm and the dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four His non-fiction works, including The Road to Wigan Pier , documenting his experience of working-class life in the north of England, and Homage to Catalonia , an account of his experiences soldiering for the Republican faction of the Spanish Civil War — , are as critically respected as his essays on politics and literature, language and culture.
Orwell's work remains influential in popular culture and in political culture , and the adjective " Orwellian "—describing totalitarian and authoritarian social practices—is part of the English language, like many of his neologisms , such as " Big Brother ", " Thought Police ", " Two Minutes Hate ", " Room ", " memory hole ", " Newspeak ", " doublethink ", " proles ", " unperson ", and " thoughtcrime ".
When Eric was one year old, his mother took him and Marjorie to England. Eric was brought up in the company of his mother and sisters, and apart from a brief visit in mid,  the family did not see their husband or father, Richard Blair, until Aged five, Eric was sent as a day-boy to a convent school in Henley-on-Thames, which Marjorie also attended.
It was a Roman Catholic convent run by French Ursuline nuns, who had been exiled from France after Catholic education was banned in due to the Dreyfus Affair. In September , Eric arrived at St Cyprian's. He boarded at the school for the next five years, returning home only for school holidays. During this period, while working for the Ministry of Pensions, his mother lived at 23 Cromwell Crescent, Earls Court. He knew nothing of the reduced fees, although he "soon recognised that he was from a poorer home".
Many years later, as the editor of Horizon , Connolly published several of Orwell's essays. Before the First World War, the family moved to Shiplake , Oxfordshire where Eric became friendly with the Buddicom family, especially their daughter Jacintha. When they first met, he was standing on his head in a field.
On being asked why, he said, "You are noticed more if you stand on your head than if you are right way up. He said that he might write a book in the style of H.
Wells 's A Modern Utopia. During this period, he also enjoyed shooting, fishing and birdwatching with Jacintha's brother and sister. But inclusion on the Eton scholarship roll did not guarantee a place, and none was immediately available for Blair. He chose to stay at St Cyprian's until December , in case a place at Eton became available. In January, Blair took up the place at Wellington, where he spent the Spring term. In May a place became available as a King's Scholar at Eton.
Blair remained at Eton until December , when he left midway between his 18th and 19th birthday. Wellington was "beastly", Orwell told his childhood friend Jacintha Buddicom, but he said he was "interested and happy" at Eton. Gow , Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge , who also gave him advice later in his career.
Steven Runciman , who was at Eton with Blair, noted that he and his contemporaries appreciated Huxley's linguistic flair. Blair's academic performance reports suggest that he neglected his academic studies,  but during his time at Eton he worked with Roger Mynors to produce a College magazine, The Election Times , joined in the production of other publications— College Days and Bubble and Squeak —and participated in the Eton Wall Game.
His parents could not afford to send him to a university without another scholarship, and they concluded from his poor results that he would not be able to win one. Runciman noted that he had a romantic idea about the East ,  and the family decided that Blair should join the Imperial Police , the precursor of the Indian Police Service.
For this he had to pass an entrance examination. In December he left Eton and travelled to join his retired father, mother, and younger sister Avril, who that month had moved to 40 Stradbroke Road, Southwold , Suffolk, the first of their four homes in the town. He passed the entrance exam, coming seventh out of the 26 candidates who exceeded the pass mark.
Blair's maternal grandmother lived at Moulmein , so he chose a posting in Burma , then still a province of British India. A month later, he arrived at Rangoon and travelled to the police training school in Mandalay. He was appointed an Assistant District Superintendent on probation on 29 November ,  with effect from 27 November and at a base salary of Rs.
Working as an imperial police officer gave him considerable responsibility while most of his contemporaries were still at university in England. When he was posted farther east in the Delta to Twante as a sub-divisional officer, he was responsible for the security of some , people. At the end of , he was posted to Syriam , closer to Rangoon. Syriam had the refinery of the Burmah Oil Company , "the surrounding land a barren waste, all vegetation killed off by the fumes of sulphur dioxide pouring out day and night from the stacks of the refinery.
She noted his "sense of utter fairness in minutest details". In Burma, Blair acquired a reputation as an outsider. He spent much of his time alone, reading or pursuing non- pukka activities, such as attending the churches of the Karen ethnic group. A colleague, Roger Beadon, recalled in a recording for the BBC that Blair was fast to learn the language and that before he left Burma, "was able to speak fluently with Burmese priests in 'very high-flown Burmese.
This included adopting a pencil moustache , a thin line above the lip he previously had a toothbrush moustache. Emma Larkin writes in the introduction to Burmese Days , "While in Burma, he acquired a moustache similar to those worn by officers of the British regiments stationed there. Many Burmese living in rural areas still sport tattoos like this—they are believed to protect against bullets and snake bites. In April he moved to Moulmein, where his maternal grandmother lived.
At the end of that year, he was assigned to Katha in Upper Burma , where he contracted dengue fever in Entitled to a leave in England that year, he was allowed to return in July due to his illness. While on leave in England and on holiday with his family in Cornwall in September , he reappraised his life.
Deciding against returning to Burma, he resigned from the Indian Imperial Police to become a writer, with effect from 12 March after five-and-a-half years of service. In England, he settled back in the family home at Southwold , renewing acquaintance with local friends and attending an Old Etonian dinner.
He visited his old tutor Gow at Cambridge for advice on becoming a writer. In fact he decided to write of "certain aspects of the present that he set out to know" and ventured into the East End of London —the first of the occasional sorties he would make to discover for himself the world of poverty and the down-and-outers who inhabit it. He had found a subject. These sorties, explorations, expeditions, tours or immersions were made intermittently over a period of five years. In imitation of Jack London , whose writing he admired particularly The People of the Abyss , Blair started to explore the poorer parts of London.
On his first outing he set out to Limehouse Causeway , spending his first night in a common lodging house, possibly George Levy's 'kip'. For a while he "went native" in his own country, dressing like a tramp , adopting the name P. Burton and making no concessions to middle-class mores and expectations; he recorded his experiences of the low life for use in " The Spike ", his first published essay in English, and in the second half of his first book, Down and Out in Paris and London In early he moved to Paris.
He lived in the rue du Pot de Fer, a working class district in the 5th Arrondissement. He began to write novels, including an early version of Burmese Days , but nothing else survives from that period. His experiences there were the basis of his essay " How the Poor Die ", published in He chose not to identify the hospital, and indeed was deliberately misleading about its location.
Shortly afterwards, he had all his money stolen from his lodging house. Whether through necessity or to collect material, he undertook menial jobs such as dishwashing in a fashionable hotel on the rue de Rivoli , which he later described in Down and Out in Paris and London.
In December after nearly two years in Paris, Blair returned to England and went directly to his parents' house in Southwold , a coastal town in Suffolk , which remained his base for the next five years.
The family was well established in the town, and his sister Avril was running a tea-house there. He became acquainted with many local people, including Brenda Salkeld, the clergyman's daughter who worked as a gym-teacher at St Felix Girls' School in the town. Although Salkeld rejected his offer of marriage, she remained a friend and regular correspondent for many years. He also renewed friendships with older friends, such as Dennis Collings, whose girlfriend Eleanor Jacques was also to play a part in his life.
In early he stayed briefly in Bramley, Leeds , with his sister Marjorie and her husband Humphrey Dakin, who was as unappreciative of Blair as when they knew each other as children. Blair was writing reviews for Adelphi and acting as a private tutor to a disabled child at Southwold. He then became tutor to three young brothers, one of whom, Richard Peters , later became a distinguished academic. There is Blair leading a respectable, outwardly eventless life at his parents' house in Southwold, writing; then in contrast, there is Blair as Burton the name he used in his down-and-out episodes in search of experience in the kips and spikes, in the East End, on the road, and in the hop fields of Kent.
Over the next year he visited them in London, often meeting their friend Max Plowman. He also often stayed at the homes of Ruth Pitter and Richard Rees, where he could "change" for his sporadic tramping expeditions.
One of his jobs was domestic work at a lodgings for half a crown two shillings and sixpence, or one-eighth of a pound a day. Blair now contributed regularly to Adelphi , with " A Hanging " appearing in August From August to September his explorations of poverty continued, and, like the protagonist of A Clergyman's Daughter , he followed the East End tradition of working in the Kent hop fields.
He kept a diary about his experiences there. Afterwards, he lodged in the Tooley Street kip , but could not stand it for long, and with financial help from his parents moved to Windsor Street, where he stayed until Christmas. Mabel Fierz put him in contact with Leonard Moore , who became his literary agent. Eliot , also rejected it.
Blair ended the year by deliberately getting himself arrested,  so that he could experience Christmas in prison, but the authorities did not regard his "drunk and disorderly" behaviour as imprisonable, and he returned home to Southwold after two days in a police cell.
This was a small school offering private schooling for children of local tradesmen and shopkeepers, and had only 14 or 16 boys aged between ten and sixteen, and one other master. At the end of the summer term in , Blair returned to Southwold, where his parents had used a legacy to buy their own home.
Blair and his sister Avril spent the holidays making the house habitable while he also worked on Burmese Days.
He returned to teaching at Hayes and prepared for the publication of his book, now known as Down and Out in Paris and London.
He wished to publish under a different name to avoid any embarrassment to his family over his time as a "tramp". Four days later, he wrote to Moore, suggesting the pseudonyms P. Lewis Allways. This was a much larger establishment with pupils and a full complement of staff. He acquired a motorcycle and took trips through the surrounding countryside. On one of these expeditions he became soaked and caught a chill that developed into pneumonia. He was taken to Uxbridge Cottage Hospital, where for a time his life was believed to be in danger.
When he was discharged in January , he returned to Southwold to convalesce and, supported by his parents, never returned to teaching.
1984 : Hiljadu devetsto osamdeset cetvrta
ISBN 13: 9788683725069