Dittrichia viscosa which belongs to the Asteraceae family is frequently used to treat hematomas and skin disorders in Mediterranean herbal medicine. This study aims to validate its antioxidant effects and its potential on healing wounds. The ethanolic extract of D. During this study, the ethanolic D. The effects on wound healing of obtained ointments were evaluated by excision of the wound in a mice model for 12 days.
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A Nature Research Journal. Dittrichia viscosa L. Greuter, a perennial weed of the Mediterranean area, was reported to be source of active substances. Here, by means of both ingestion and contact assays, the biological activity of three different extracts n-hexane, methanol, and distilled water of D. Ingestion assays showed negligible mortality and food deterrence for all the extracts, whereas only a slight reduction of some nutritional parameters relative growth rate, relative consumption rate, food efficiency conversion was recorded for water extract.
This extract was further subfractioned by silica gel column chromatography and then by thin layer chromatography.
Further contact toxicity bioassays highlighted two active subfractions which were analyzed by GC-MS. Moreover, D. The indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides for several decades has led to the accumulation of toxic residues in the environment and food as well as to the development of resistant pest populations 1. A clear example of that is represented by fenitrothion, a broad-spectrum organophosphorus pesticide acting on acetylcholinesterase AChE , which, due to its extensive use, in some regions is classified as a common river water pollutant 2.
Therefore, the search for novel eco-friendly compounds safer for customers and workers is strongly required, as also recommended by both national and international legislations. In this context, the need for effective and biodegradable pesticides has created a significant market opportunity for alternative products 3.
In fact, their use reduces the risk to non-target organisms, due to their rapid degradation in the environment, and provides novel and multiple modes of action that reduce the probability of developing pest resistance 1 , 7. In this regard, the insecticidal activity of plants belonging to the Asteraceae family has been investigated in many previous studies 8 , 9 , Greuter sin.
Inula viscosa L. Aiton is a perennial Mediterranean weed species of this family reported to be a source of bioactive compounds 11 , 12 , as also suggested by its use in folk medicine as an antidiabetic 13 , antipyretic and anti-inflammatory treatment 14 , More recently, D.
In particular, besides antibacterial and antifungal activities 19 , extracts from this plant showed also toxicity against the nematode Meloidogyne javanica Treub Chitiwood 20 , the mite Tetranichus cinnabarinus Boisduval 21 , larvae of Tuta absoluta Meyrick 22 and antifeedant effects against the aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer Moreover, many compounds were identified in different D. However, until now, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have been carried out on the effects of D.
The granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius L. Control of the granary weevil is difficult due to the endophytic development of immature stages that are well protected within grains from pesticides, the increasing legislation limits to the use of some fumigants and broad-spectrum contact insecticides, and the increasing consumer demand for safe food In this study, firstly the bioactivity of D.
In parallel, both D. To gain a first insight into biological activity of D. Thus, S. In the dose range tested, almost no ingestion toxicity was observed for all the extracts. Moreover, no significant differences in nutritional parameters were found in the treatment with n-hexane and methanol extracts.
Only the highest dose of the aqueous extract caused a significant reduction of RGR and RCR indexes compared with control values, however the resulting ECI was not found to be significantly different from control. FDI was only slightly affected by different doses of the aqueous extract. Having found poor or no effect of D.
The LD 50 value was In the light of its highest contact toxicity, n-hexane extract was deeper analyzed in order to identify the active compounds contained in this mixture. Thus, an aliquot of this extract was purified by silica gel column chromatography and 25 fractions recovered and checked for contact toxicity against granary weevils.
Therefore, this fraction 7 was further purified by means of thin layer chromatography and the recovered TLC subfractions tested on the insect as above Fig. A lower toxicity was also found for subfraction 4, while no toxicity was observed for the other subfractions. Having the biological assays identified the fraction and subfractions retaining n-hexane extract toxicity, a chemical characterization of these ones was carried out. The GC-MS analysis of fraction 7 revealed the presence of two main peaks Moreover, these peaks were also found in both bioactive subfractions 4 and 5 , with more abundance in the most active one Fig.
To further ascertain the exact molecular identification of compounds revealed in Fig. Observing the mass spectra relative to peaks 1b and 2b Fig. These differences are related to the structures of the two costic acid isomers. The fragmentation scheme is shown in Fig. Accordingly, in contact toxicity assay Fig. Being the impairment of nervous system function the main mechanism by which plant metabolites toxicity occurs 35 , 36 , the effect of plant extracts, fractions, and subfractions on the AChE, the most conserved mechanism in nervous transmission, was investigated.
A progressive inhibition of pure commercial AChE was found at increasing concentration of each extract Fig. Differently, from plant n-hexane extract, no inhibition of this enzyme was registered for any silica gel column fractions Supplementary Fig. Moreover, to confirm the low anticholinesterase activity of n-hexane fraction, the effect of both fraction 7 and its active subfractions was further checked on AChE activity obtained from adult granary weevils Fig.
A very poor inhibition was found for increasing volumes of fraction 7, corresponding to 0. Results of this study confirm D. This consideration mostly relies on the high contact toxicity exerted by the n-hexane extract of D. In fact, contact toxicity was low or absent respectively for methanol and water extracts and no ingestion toxicity was found for any of the three extracts. Marked differences in the toxicity of plant extracts obtained using organic solvents of different polarity was also observed in many previous studies 9 , 32 including plant extracts of species belonging to the Asteraceae family Nutritional parameters of insects fed with untreated flour disks control were in fairly good agreement with those reported in other studies Plant extracts exerted negligible effects on nutritional parameters of adult weevils except for the highest dose of water extract that caused a significant reduction of food intake RCR and relative growth rate RGR when compared to control.
Since no ingestion toxicity was observed this alteration in nutritional parameters indicates the presence of antifeedant constituents in the water extract rather than post-ingestion toxicants which more likely act on the gustatory organs of the mouthparts However, chemical analysis of water extract is needed to support or refute this hypothesis, as well as for better understanding the variability registered with this extract for the other nutritional indexes.
Moreover, the knowledge of both methanol and water extracts composition would shed some light on the different effects exerted by the three plant extracts. On the other hand, the main outcome of this study remains the high contact toxicity of n-hexane extract. This toxic activity was comparable with those observed for n-hexane extract of Scrophularia canina L.
LD 50 In this regard, the amount of costic acid sum of both isomers in fraction 7 was calculated to be Since this fraction comes from Such a value is in fairly good agreement with the Identification of costic acid isomers in D. On the contrary, this latter compound was identified and showed to be active against the mite Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman Whether these differences rely on different geographical region of plant growth, more unlikely on the different extraction conditions, is a matter of speculation.
Notice that this high specifity would not be unique since the same applies for alantolactone isomers of Inula helenium L. Plant extracts investigated here showed a moderate dose dependent AChE inhibitory capability, in fair agreement with previous studies in which anticholinesterase activity for D. However, the active fraction, and subfractions, of n-hexane extract induced a very poor inhibition of both insect and pure AChE, thus ruling out this mechanism of action.
It is known, in fact, that nervous transmission impairment, especially through AChE inhibition, have represented historically the main target of insecticides Hence, results reported here suggest D. Adults two-four weeks old of mixed sexes were used for the experiments. About plants of D. Supplementary Fig. A voucher specimen was deposited in the herbarium of Department of Agricultural, Environmental and Food Sciences, University of Molise.
For each plant, the aerial part containing at least 15 flowers and 10 leaves were dried and ground to a fine powder.
N-hexane and methanol extracts were dried under vacuum in a rotary evaporator Laborota , Heidolph, Germany whereas water extract was lyophilized Hetosicc FD 2. The residues obtained were Effects of D. In parallel, plant extracts samples were prepared by dissolving the residues of n-hexane, methanol and water extracts in n-hexane, acetone:methanol and acetone:water , respectively. For each sample two-fold serial dilutions were prepared. At the end of the test, for each glass vial, insects were removed, the number of dead insects recorded, and the weight of both the 2 flour disks residues and live insects were separately measured.
As a control, glass vials containing treated flour disks but without insects were prepared to determine any decrease in weights due to evaporation of solvent and sample. For each sample concentration, as well as for control, 5 replicates were set up. The following nutritional indices 40 , 53 for each replicate were calculated:. The contact toxicity of D. For each sample, two-fold serial dilutions for plant extracts For each sample, 60 insects divided in 12 replicates were used.
The percentage mortalities were transformed to arcsine square-root values for one-way analysis of variance ANOVA. Treatment means were compared and separated by Tukey HSD test. These solutions were tested for their contact toxicity against S. To assess insecticidal activity, subfractions 1. The sample was quantified in triplicate.
Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter
Click on images to enlarge. Native to southern Europe i. It is not certain how false yellowhead was introduced to Australia, but it may have escaped from cultivation as a garden ornamental. Naturalised in the coastal districts of south-western Western Australia. It has spread from its initial site of naturalisation at Albany to Mount Barker and Denmark. There are also populations at Walpole-Peaceful Bay and Mount Manypeaks, and an isolated population has also been recorded on a train track at Yarloop.
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Dittrichia viscosa , also known as false yellowhead ,  woody fleabane ,  sticky fleabane and yellow fleabane , is a flowering plant in the daisy family. Dittrichia viscosa is a highly branching perennial common throughout the Mediterranean Basin. It has long, narrow leaves that are pointed at both ends and have teeth along the edges and glandular hairs on the surfaces. One plant can produce many yellow flower heads each with as many as 16 ray florets and 44 disc florets.
We are working on a subset of plants in the PFAF database identified as having the most potential for inclusion in such designs. We are adding search terms and icons to those plants pages, and providing a range of search options aligned to categories of plants and crop yields, with Help facilities including videos. Inula viscosa. Cultivated Beds;.