Several changes resulted from the Council, including the renewal of consecrated life with a revised charism , ecumenical efforts towards dialogue with other religions, and the universal call to holiness , which according to Pope Paul VI was "the most characteristic and ultimate purpose of the teachings of the Council". According to Pope Benedict XVI , the most important and essential message of the Council is "the Paschal Mystery as the center of what it is to be Christian and therefore of the Christian life, the Christian year , the Christian seasons". Many of these changes remain divisive among the Catholic faithful. In the s, theological and biblical studies in the Catholic Church had begun to sway away from the Neo-Scholasticism and biblical literalism which a reaction to Catholic modernism had enforced since the First Vatican Council.
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Its best-known decision is its definition of papal infallibility. The council was convoked to deal with the contemporary problems of the rising influence of rationalism , liberalism , and materialism. The Council condemned rationalism, liberalism, naturalism, materialism and pantheism. The Catholic Church was on the defensive against the main ideology of the 19th century. Peter's Basilica on 8 December Bishop Bernard John McQuaid complained of rainy weather, inadequate heating facilities, and boredom.
The doctrine of papal infallibility was not new and had been used by Pope Pius in defining as dogma, in , the Immaculate Conception of Mary, the mother of Jesus. According to McBrien, the majority of the bishops were not so much interested in a formal definition of papal infallibility as they were in strengthening papal authority and, because of this, were willing to accept the agenda of the infallibilists.
A minority, some 10 per cent of the bishops, McBrien says, opposed the proposed definition of papal infallibility on both ecclesiastical and pragmatic grounds, because, in their opinion, it departed from the ecclesiastical structure of the early Christian church.
On 24 April , the dogmatic constitution on the Catholic faith Dei Filius was adopted unanimously. The draft presented to the council on 8 March drew no serious criticism, but a group of 35 English-speaking bishops, who feared that the opening phrase of the first chapter, " Sancta romana catholica Ecclesia " 'Holy Roman Catholic Church' , might be construed as favouring the Anglican branch theory , later succeeded in having an additional adjective inserted, so that the final text read: " Sancta catholica apostolica romana Ecclesia " 'Holy Catholic Apostolic Roman Church'.
There was stronger opposition to the draft constitution on the nature of the church, which at first did not include the question of papal infallibility,  but the majority party in the council, whose position on this matter was much stronger,  brought it forward.
It was decided to postpone discussion of everything in the draft except infallibility. Pius IX rejected Guidi's view of the bishops as witnesses to the tradition, maintaining: "I am the tradition.
On 13 July , a preliminary vote on the section on infallibility was held in a general congregation: voted simply in favour placet , 88 against non placet , and 62 in favour but on condition of some amendment placet iuxta modum. The final vote, with a choice only between placet and non placet , was taken on 18 July , with votes in favour and only 2 against defining as a dogma the infallibility of the pope when speaking ex cathedra.
The dogmatic constitution states, in chapter , that the Pope has "full and supreme power of jurisdiction over the whole Church" chapter ; and that, when he:. None of the bishops who had argued that proclaiming the definition was inopportune refused to accept it. Discussion of the rest of the document on the nature of the church was to continue when the bishops returned after a summer break.
However, in the meanwhile the Franco-Prussian War broke out. Consequently, on 20 September , one month after the Kingdom of Italy had occupied Rome , Pope Pius IX, who then considered himself a prisoner in the Vatican, issued the bull Postquam Dei munere , adjourning the council indefinitely.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Patriarchs compared to popes. Ecumenical councils compared to popes. Catholic episcopal councils compared to popes. Political rulers compared to popes. Existing dogma compared to popes. Objections and controversy. Main article: Papal infallibility. Main article: Dei Filius.
Main article: Pastor aeternus. Archived from the original on 15 September Retrieved 2 March — via Conciliaria. The Story of My Life. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company. Retrieved 25 February Burton, Ivor F. Retrieved 2 March Pius IX. Translated by Laughland, John. Leominster, England: Gracewing. Saints and Sinners: A History of the Popes 4th ed.
Hennesey, James Archived from the original on 31 October Retrieved 3 March Konrad In Herbermann, Charles G. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: The Encyclopedia Press published Encyclopedia of Christian Theology. New York: Routledge. The HarperCollins Encyclopedia of Catholicism. New York: HarperCollins. London: John Murray. Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils. The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed.
New York: Columbia University Press. Archived from the original on 18 June Rome: L'Osservatore Romano. De Cesare, Raffaele The Last Days of Papal Rome. Translated by Zimmern, Helen. Hales, E. Garden City, New York: Doubleday. Hasler, August Bernhard Mirbt, Carl Theodor In Chisholm, Hugh ed. Prusak, Bernard P. The Church Unfinished: Ecclesiology through the Centuries. New York: Paulist Press. Ecumenical councils in Christianity. Conferences of theological experts convened to discuss and settle matters of doctrine and practice in Christianity.
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First Vatican Council
The joys and the hopes, the griefs and the anxieties of the men of this age, especially those who are poor or in any way afflicted, these are the joys and hopes, the griefs and anxieties of the followers of Christ. Indeed, nothing genuinely human fails to raise an echo in their hearts. For theirs is a community composed of men. United in Christ, they are led by the Holy Spirit in their journey to the Kingdom of their Father and they have welcomed the news of salvation which is meant for every man. That is why this community realizes that it is truly linked with mankind and its history by the deepest of bonds. Hence this Second Vatican Council, having probed more profoundly into the mystery of the Church, now addresses itself without hesitation, not only to the sons of the Church and to all who invoke the name of Christ, but to the whole of humanity. For the council yearns to explain to everyone how it conceives of the presence and activity of the Church in the world of today.
Second Vatican Council