To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up.

Author:Vudozahn Kajimi
Language:English (Spanish)
Published (Last):1 September 2016
PDF File Size:17.70 Mb
ePub File Size:10.80 Mb
Price:Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Muhannad Husain. The following member countries have submitted documents stating the major differences. Some editing is still needed in order to make the final version easier to read. In some cases no changes are made to the entire ACI document which is accepted completely.

However, not all member countries have updated their documents to the newer editions of ACI This is quite an interesting finding since starting in , ACI has published a Spanish version of the document. It is concluded that the Spanish version has not had an official impact in the code writing bodies in the Americas.

Perhaps more important than this is the possibility that practicing engineers may be using the most current Spanish edition without paying too much attention to the possible gaps between the newer and the approved editions. Enclosed are the contributions from the member countries listed below.

Codes establish general requirements and are of mandatory application. CIRSOC [2] reports to the national government and is responsible for writing and approving the Codes, which are then applied by the national, provincial and municipal governments.

The standards specify material characteristics. They are issued by IRAM [3], a private institution acknowledged by the national government, which runs like similar institutions in other countries. The first code dates from It was based on German standards. PRAEH [4] was issued in Its first part dealt with ACI concrete technology. It included specifications on materials, strength properties, durability and construction processes contained in recommendations other than ACI The second part specified requirements for structural design; it was based on the state of the art at that time and acknowledged the influence of CEB [5].

It is based on the German Code [7]. This version is similar to the previous one, but a new order is established in the chapters related to Materials and Constructions and a Classification of Exposure Environments based upon Eurocodes is added.

These chapters are: Chapter 1-General requirements and definitions; Chapter 2-Concrete quality, durability and strength requirements; Chapter 3-Materials; Chapter 4-Assesment criteria; Chapter 5-Proportioning, mixing, placing and curing; Chapter 6-Formwork, embedded pipes and tolerances. New chapters were also added Chapter Prestressed concrete.

Injection of ducts. Chapter Finished Structures Approval. Also, in the following sections main differences are detailed. Both chapters are equivalent, with some differences. It also establishes that service life should be fixed by the owner and assumes it to be equal to or older than 50 years. Some of the important subjects treated here are: aggressive substances in water and soil in contact with the structure, sulphate contents in concrete, chloride contents in concrete, freezing and thawing resistance in concrete, alkali-silica reaction.

CIRSOC presents two tables to classify the natural environment at the sites taking into account whether they produce rebar corrosion or concrete degradation due to effects other than corrosion. Protection requirements are set for each environment.

All these requirements are shown in Tables B, C and D. In a separate section, Chapter 2 deals also with alkali-silica reaction see section 4 of this presentation. Both standards are similar. They have minor differences. The bars used in both codes are different in size and mechanical characteristics. Differences are detailed in section 3 of this 2.

See further explanation in section 6 of this presentation 5. Exterior elements protected. A1 Non-aggressive Structural massive concrete. Rural environments and desert climates, average annual rainfall below mm. Moderate and cold condensation.

A2 temperature, no freezing. Elements buried in damp soils or submerged. Concrete surfaces exposed to chlorides from Humid or submerged, containing chlorides water spray or due to fluctuations in water CL from sources other than marine level.

Concrete exposed to natural waters environment polluted by industrial drains. At more than 1 km from the high tide level M1 Outdoors and unusual contact with airborne salt. At less than 1 km from the high tide level and Outdoors in continuous or frequent contact with M2 Marine airborne salt.

Submerged in seawater, below the minimum Submerged tide level. Moderately Q1 Concrete alteration at low velocity. Q2 environments aggressive Seawater exposure. Extremely Q3 Concrete alteration at high velocity.

Criteria to determine the degree of attack of contact waters Table E. If all the concentrations correspond to the same degree of attack, with values greater than 0. ASR is prevented by field performance data and laboratory tests. CIRSOC strength-related conformity criteria follow modern quality concepts and seek to reduce consumer's risk. CIRSOC has two types of conformity criteria which correspond to different conditions at the concrete production site.

In both cases, concrete acceptance is based on tests performed on samples taken at the site. Type 1 criteria are similar to those of ACI and apply to manufacturers that have a quality system in the place of production. Type 2 criteria apply to concrete supplied by a plant that has not implemented a quality system.

In our country, differences about methods and grouting for duct injections existed. July April 1. The policy of the committee was to change as few items as possible. However, some changes had to be done mainly due to the European tradition of using smaller bar diameters 6 mm and 8 mm are common for ties and stirrups and bar spacing.

In these cases the the values in Table 7. The requirements are other wires. Bends with inside diameter of less than illustrated in the Code with the following figures: 8db shall not be less than 4db from nearest welded intersection.

Classes of environmental exposure In corrosive environments or other severe exposure According to the enviromental exposure several classes conditions, amount of concrete protection shall be are defined. Where longitudinal bars are located tie from such a laterally supported bar. Where around the perimeter of a circle, a complete longitudinal bars are located around the perimeter circular tie shall be permitted.

The The effect of one or more loads not acting effect of one or more loads not acting simultaneously simultaneously shall be investigated. The modulus of elasticity of concrete, flexural stiffness of a width of slab bounded Ec, shall be as specified in 8.

The effective moment laterally by centerlines of adjacent panels if of inertia, Ie, shall be that given by Eq. Maximum spacing of same as that required by 7. Maximum spacing of this reinforcement shall not exceed three times the this reinforcement shall not exceed 2. This code replaces the use of the Chilean Standards: NCh Of and NCh These standards are no longer in use designs considering permissible stresses and they have been improved by more complete and modern standards like the ACI — 02 Code, that relies on a wide experimental background, an extended use of international level and it is bringing up to date continuously.

This Appendix modifies the ACI Code and presents some adjustments to the Chilean environment and special characteristics. F4- ACI , section R2. This greater hardening grade required in Chile improves reinforced concrete elements ductility and must be maintened if it does not mean a great increase on steel cost. However, NCh Standard does not fix the yield strength upper limit. Considering this three effects, different coverings from those required by the ACI Code have been defined.

The following environmental and concrete cast conditions must be considered: a. In case of severe environmental conditions, excepting some of them, the covers mentioned in the main body of ACI have been maintained. In case of normal conditions, smaller covers are proposed.

Concrete casting conditions. There are three casting conditions: i Cast in place of non prestressed elements. Minimum cover, mm Normal Severe conditions conditions a Concrete placed against and permanently exposed to earth The minimum amount mentioned in They do no act as frame members; their function is to confine the panel.

The details of these elements must be designed according to the NCh Standard. Frames present in those composite structural systems would have low flexural requirements.


Princeton University Library Catalog

Create Account. Sign In. Autodesk Knowledge Network. Turn on suggestions. Auto-suggest helps you quickly narrow down your search results by suggesting possible matches as you type. Showing results for. Search instead for.


Influence of two different fly ashes on the hydration of portland cements

As of the Additionally, the U. Seismic loads. The These criteria are justified in the U. For this code, the

Related Articles