Journal of Applied Psychology. Kansas State College. Harold F. Hospital Supply. Increasingly, business and industrial con- cerns are studying the job satisfaction and morale of their employees. It has been recog-.
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Journal of Applied Psychology. Kansas State College. Harold F. Hospital Supply. Increasingly, business and industrial con- cerns are studying the job satisfaction and morale of their employees.
It has been recog-. Unfortunately, adequate indices of job satis- faction are difficult to obtain. This report describes the construction and validation of.
A careful survey of the literature reveals that attempts to identify and estimate job satisfaction have preceded precise definition. Employee satisfaction and morale are often equated but seldom defined 4. Hull and Kolstad aptly summarize the state of affairs:. Such definitions as have been offered are of little help to the psychologist in the construction of items designed to measure morale. Thus it was is necessary to proceed on the basis of subjective judgment" 3: Special thanks are due Professor Donald G.
Paterson under whose advisorship this study was conducted as one portion of the dissertation. As a working approach for this study it was assumed that job satisfaction could be inferred from the individual's attitude toward his work.
This approach dictated the methodology- attitude scaling. An attitude scale elicits an expression of feeling toward an object. It may be used directly with an individual to obtain such an expression. It permits quantification of the expression of feeling. These characteristics suggest the utility of attitude scaling method- ology in developing an index of job satisfaction.
The following requirements were formulated as desirable attributes of an attitude scale designed to provide a useful index of job satisfaction:. It should give an index to "over-all" job satisfaction rather than to specific aspects of the job situation. It should be applicable to a wide variety of jobs. It should be sensitive to variations in attitude. The items should be of such a nature in- teresting, realistic, and varied that the scale would evoke cooperation from both management and employees,.
It should yield a reliable index. It should yield a valid index. It should be brief and easily scored. At the time this study was undertaken the two most widely known and used attitude scaling techniques were those of Thurstone 10 and Likert 5.
Initially the choice be- tween them was made on the basis of a practical. Since it would have been ex- tremely difficult to obtain employed persons as subjects for the item analysis required by the Likert technique, the Thurstone method was chosen. The latter method requires a number of judges to sort items. On the basis of other studies it was assumed that employed persons were not necessarily required as judges but that almost any mature person could make a judgment regarding the "value" of a statement on an attitude continuum regardless of his own job situation 1, 8.
The construction of this scale was made a class project in Personnel Psychology 1 for members of an Army Specialized Training Program in personnel psychology at the Uni- versity of Minnesota in the summer and fall of. Seventy-seven men cooperated. The majority had had at least several years occupa- tional experience ranging from unskilled labor to professional occupations. The number of judges appears adequate 7, The class was given instructions similar to those outlined by Thurstone for the construc- tion of items.
Approximately 1, state- ments were turned in by the class and an additional 75 by the investigators. This col- lection was edited and the resulting statements were mimeographed, sorted into sets, and distributed to the ASTP men for judging. Each judge sorted the statements under supervision according to the instructions suggested by Thurstone.
After tabulating the results the scale and the Q values for each statement were determined graphically. Care- ful checks were made for accuracy. Four specific criteria determined the in- clusion or exclusion of items for the preliminary scale. First, it was desired to have items cover- ing the entire range of the attitude continuum at approximately. Second, the Q value, which is based on the degree of uniformity in the sorting of state- ments, was used as an objective measure of ambiguity in accordance with Thurstone's recommendations.
Consequently no item was selected which had a Q value of 2. Third, from a purely subjective appraisal by. Items referring to specific aspects of a job were eliminated since an "over-all" attitudinal factor was desired; thus items re- garding pay, working conditions, etc. Finally, acceptability to employees and management as judged by the investigators and manage- ment representatives was a criterion.
For example, the item "I am tempted to use illness as an excuse to stay home from this job" was typical of those rejected because they seemed to reflect unfavorably upon the individual. Next a preliminary scale containing eighteen selected statements was administered to 10 employed female office workers and a rank order correlation was computed for the odd versus even items paired according to Thur- stone's directions. The resulting rho was. This finding indicated a shift in method.
Since Likert had found that his method of scoring attitude scales gave a higher reliability than Thurstone's, his scoring technique was adopted and a second experimental scale was developed 6. As a result of experience with the preliminary administration, additional comments of man- agement, and to replace two "neutral" items 9 new items were substituted. The resulting blank contained 18 items with Thurstone scale values ranging from 1.
The items were not arranged in order of magnitude of scale values. The Likert scoring system consisting of five categories of agreement-disagreement was ap- plied to each item.
From the Thurstone scale value it was known in what direction to apply the new scoring method so that a low total score would represent the dissatisfied end of the scale and a high total score the satisfied end. The items were selected so that the satisfied end of the scale was indicated by Strongly Agree and Agree for one-half the items and by Strongly Disagree and Disagree for the other half.
The neutral response was Undecided. The Likert scoring weights for each item ranged from 1 to 5 and the range of possible total scores now became 18 to 90 with the undecided or neutral point at An Index of Job Satisfaction. Some jobs are more interesting and satisfying than others. We want to know how people feel about different jobs.
This blank contains eighteen statements about jobs. You are to cross out the phrase below each statement which best describes how you feel about your present job. There are no right or wrong answers.
We should like your honest opinion on each one of the statements. Work out the sample item numbered 0. There are some conditions concerning my job that could be improved. My job is like a hobby to me. My job is usually interesting enough to keep me from getting bored. I consider my job rather unpleasant. I enjoy my work more than my leisure time. I am often bored with my job.
I feel fairly well satisfied with my present job. I am satisfied with my job for the time being. I feel that my job is no more interesting than others I could get. I definitely dislike my work. I feel that I am happier in my work than most other people. Most days I am enthusiastic about my work. Each day of work seems like it will never end. I like rny job better than the average worker does.
My job is pretty uninteresting. I find real enjoyment in my work. I am disappointed that I ever took this job. Revised job satisfaction blank. Bray field and H. The new scale was administered to 8 addi- tional employed female office workers and a rank order correlation computed for the odd versus even items.
The resulting rho of. This was believed to be satisfactory for further experimentation and the revised scale was then printed see Figure 1.
Reliability The revised scale was administered sub- sequently as part of a larger study to employed female office employees in positions including entry, typing and stenographic, low. The blanks were signed along with other test materials. One of the investigators personally administered the tests to employees in small groups.
Typically, the subjects were young, unmarried girls without dependents. The average girl in the sample had completed 12 years of schooling.
An Index of Job Satisfaction (Brayfield and Rothe)
Brayfield, A. An index of job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology , This study explored the level of job satisfaction among private and public primary school teachers of Bangladesh. Data have been collected randomly from 40 primary school teachers of Bogra district in Bangladesh through a structured questionnaire in February to March Brayfield and Rothe method was used to determine the job satisfaction of the primary school teachers.
Assessing the attitudes and perceptions of organizatonal members. Seashore, E. Lawler, P. Cammann Eds. New York: John Wiley. Development of a compact measure of job satisfaction: The abridged Job Descriptive Index. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 62, —