BRAHMA SUTRA SHANKARA BHASHYA ENGLISH PDF

The text systematizes and summarizes the philosophical and spiritual ideas in the Upanishads. Sutras were meant to assist the memory of the student who had gone through long discussions with his guru, as memory aids or clues and maximum thoughts were compressed in a few words which were unambiguous, giving the essence of the arguments on the topic. The text reviews and critiques most major orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy as well as all heterodox Indian philosophies such as Buddhism, with the exception of Samkhya and Yoga philosophies which it holds in high regards and recurrently refers to them in all its four chapters, adding in sutras 2. The first chapter is regarded in Vedanta tradition as Samanvaya Harmony , because it distills, synchronizes and brings into a harmonious whole the seemingly diverse and conflicting passages in various Sruti texts. The only source for the knowledge of this Brahman is the Sruti or the Upanishads.

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This is the English translation of the Brahma-sutras including the commentary Bhashya of Shankara. The Brahma-sutra or, Vedanta-sutra is one of the three canonical texts of the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy and represents an early exposition the Vedantic interpretation of the Upanishads. This edition has the original Sanskrit text, the r In the previous Sutra it has been shown that the gods are entitled to the Vedas and Knowledge.

This Sutra discusses whether the Sudras are entitled to them or not. Since, like the gods, the Sudras also are possessed of a body, strength, and desires, it naturally follows that they too are entitled. In Chhandogya 4. But when he appears a second time, Raikva again calls him a Sudra, but this time accepts his presents and teaches him.

So it is maintained that the Sudras also are qualified for Knowledge. And because the Kshatriyahood of Janasruti is known later on by the indicatory sign of his being mentioned along with a descendant of Chitraratha a Kshatriya. Janasruti is mentioned with the Kshatriya Chaitraratha Abhpratarin in connection with the same Vidya , and so we can infer that Janasruti also was a Kshatriya, for as a rule equals alone are mentioned together.

Because purificatory ceremonies are mentioned in the case of the twice-born and their absence are declared in the case of the Sudras. Purificatory ceremonies like Upanayana etc. Their absence in the case of the Sudras is repeatedly declared in the scriptures. Manu And because the inclination on the part of Gautama to impart Knowledge is seen only on the ascertainment of the absence of Sudrahood in Jabala Satyakama.

That Sudras are not qualified is known also from the fact that great teachers like Gautama made sure before imparting Knowledge that disciples like Jabala Satyakama were not Sudras. See Chh. And because of the prohibition in the Smriti of hearing and studying the Vedas and knowing their meaning and performing Vedic rites to Sudras, they are not entitled to the knowledge of Brahman.

Sutras disqualify the Sudra for the knowledge of Brahman through the study of the Vedas. But it is possible for them to attain that knowledge through the Puranas and the epics Ramayana and Mahabharata. Buy now! Brahma-Sutra 1. Consequently they are not entitled to the study of the Vedas. The digression begun from Sutra 26 ends here and the general topic is again taken up. Last Updated: 18 July, Like what you read? Consider supporting this website:. Donate on Patreon. Read more

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This is the English translation of the Brahma-sutras including the commentary Bhashya of Shankara. The Brahma-sutra or, Vedanta-sutra is one of the three canonical texts of the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy and represents an early exposition the Vedantic interpretation of the Upanishads. This edition has the original Sanskrit text, the r In the previous Sutra it has been shown that the gods are entitled to the Vedas and Knowledge. This Sutra discusses whether the Sudras are entitled to them or not.

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