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He stood out among Germanophiles and local supporters of the Central Powers , agitating in favor of a military offensive into Bessarabia, and demanding the annexation of Transnistria. This combative stance was later overshadowed by revelations that Nour was spying for Russia's intelligence service, the Okhrana.
Still active as an independent socialist in Greater Romania , Alexis Nour won additional fame as an advocate of human rights , land reform , women's suffrage and Jewish emancipation. During the final decade of his life, Nour also debuted as a novelist, but did not register significant success.
His late contributions as a Thracologist were received with skepticism by the academic community. From , Nour was editor of Besarabskaya Zhizn ' , Bessarabia's "first democratic paper". According to Onisifor Ghibu himself an analyst of Bessarabian life , Nour missed out on the chance of establishing a Romanian—Moldavian—Bessarabian " irredentist movement", leading "a mysterious existence", and "not giving even the faintest clue that he was alive, until As one historian assesses, this was a maverick's choice: "A.
Nour [ During the post-revolutionary age of reforms and concessions, when Besarabskaya Zhizn ' became a Kadet paper, Nour himself was a member of the Kadet bureau in Bessarabia, and the private assistant of regional party boss Leopold Sitsinski. In , Nour was affiliated with Basarabia , a Romanian-language newspaper for the region's politically minded ethnic Romanians in the region, soon after closed down by Imperial Russian censorship. In his first-ever article for the review, Alexis Nour suggested that the regional movement for national emancipation still lacked a group of intellectual leaders, or "elected sons", capable of forming a single Romanian faction in the State Duma.
As later attested by Bessarabian Romanian activist Pan Halippa founder, in , of the similarly titled magazine , his predecessor Nour had tried to emulate the Basarabia program of popular education in Romanian, with the ultimate goal of ethnic emancipation. Cazacu recalls: "Although moderate, the atmosphere was so stuffed, the hardships so great, the attacks of the right and the left so relentless, that in a short while [this magazine] also succumbed, not without having had its useful effect in the awakening of national sentiment, even among the Moldavians in various parts of Russia, in the Caucasus , and in Siberia.
Iorga, an antisemite , commented: "Mr. From to , his column Scrisori din Basarabia "Letters from Bessarabia" was the prime source of Bessarabian news for newspapers on the other side of the Russian border.
Nour also questioned the national sentiment of Bessarabia's landowning elite, which had largely been integrated into Russian nobility and served Imperial interests.
As argued by activist Ion Pelivan , the publicist was living far beyond his means, raising concern that he was receiving payments from the Russian authorities. Alexis Nour was, between June and August , the editor of his own press venue, the Russian-language newspaper Bessarabets which also published a literary supplement.
One such rendition from Leo Tolstoy , dating from , was one of the few Romanian-language books to see print in the Bessarabia Governorate before World War I. When the Bessarabets venture came to an end, Nour was again employed by Besarabskaya Zhizn ' , before switching to the gazette Drug , representing the controversial Union of the Russian People. Nour himself was suspected of having blackmailed centrist leader Krupenski and Roman Doliwa-Dobrowolski, the Marshal of Nobility in Orgeyev.
When Doliwa-Dobrowolski sued Drug and the other journalists were rounded up for questioning, Nour fled to Kiev. Probably helped along by his Okhrana contacts, he obtained a passport , and exiled himself from Russia. In summer , he informed his readers that the Russian state officials actively persuaded the Bessarabian peasants not to declare themselves Romanian. The latter demand was without precedent in the history of Romanian nationalism,  and Nour is even credited with having coined the term Transnistria in modern parlance, alongside the adjective transnistreni "Transnistrians".
Another one of Nour's analytical texts, titled Din enigma anilor — "Around the Enigma of —" , ventured to state that the German Empire and its allies were poised to win the war, ridiculed the Entente 's Gallipoli Campaign , and suggested that a German-led Mitteleuropean federation was in the making. In Nour's interpretation, the German project for Mitteleuropa amounted to the dismemberment of Austria-Hungary, leaving Transylvania free to elect in favor of joining Romania.
According to Ghibu, the Poporanists seemed to ignore the realities of Austro-Hungarian domination; their ideas about Bessarabian superiority were "provocative", "at the very least rude". Also in , Nour designed and published in Bucharest an ethnographic map of Bessarabia on a scale of , The pie-chart procedure as a whole was criticized by French geographer Emmanuel de Martonne , who viewed it as inaccurate in rendering the comparative numerical force of the individual populations.
Nour took his ideas outside the Poporanist clubs, and became a contributor to the unofficial Conservative Party press. He became a regular contributor to Petre P. Carp 's newspaper pro-Bessarabian and anti-Russian gazette Moldova , which stood by the belief that "Germany is invincible".
In , he stated the need for Romania to join the Central Powers' effort of liberating Bessarabia, Ukraine and Poland from Russia, prophesied that Austria-Hungary would inevitably collapse, and depicted future Romania as both a Black Sea and Danubian power. In spring , shortly after the February Revolution toppled the Tsarist regime, Nour's Bessarabian career received full exposure.
The committee for exploring the Special Corps of Gendarmes archive made public his reports to the Okhrana , confirming his colleagues' suspicions and exposing Nour to public shame.
This was noted at the time by the newly appointed Germanophile Premier of Romania , Alexandru Marghiloman , who credited Nour with having helped revise Romanian foreign policy: "[His] map has since been laid out on all tables of the great European conferences, in all chancelleries, and is the soundest document for those who wish to untangle the matter of Bessarabia's nationalities.
This was a risky gesture on his part: present at Londra Restaurant, where Marghiloman was being greeted by the unionist leaders, he was spotted by his former friends, and only rescued from near-certain lynching by the intervention of outgoing MDR Prime Minister , his old colleague Petru Cazacu. Confusion reigned there, with Bolshevik and other Russian troops still parading through the city streets. According to Ghibu, he had an episodic career as private teacher of Russian, having as his clients the neutralized Romanian soldiers and some concerned civilians.
Umanitatea emphasized Nour's leftist projects for social change, and, according to Lucian Boia, offered a reply to Marghiloman's promise to reform the constitutional regime. Umanitatea was noted for covering, in Nour's own editorials, the developments of Russian political life under the Bolsheviks. Cocea 's Chemarea , describe Bessarabia the "stateless" MDR as prey to "Bolshevik fury", calling for Romania to immunize itself "against the plague" by simply abandoning hopes to the region.
He also revisited his Transnistrian agenda, writing that the Romanian armies needed to move quickly and seize "the people's East, down to the Blue Bug. In one of his later essays, Nour attested that his only son, whom the Russian Civil War had caught at Odessa, was a victim of the Soviet Russian -organized shootings of Romanian hostages.
During the interwar period , when different political circumstances resulted in the creation of Greater Romania including both Bessarabia and Transylvania , Nour remained active on the literary and political scene, and was for a while editor in chief of the mainstream literary magazine Convorbiri Literare. Zarida Sylva on another Basarabia newspaper, which was dedicated to "national propaganda" in Romania and abroad, and with Alfred Hefter-Hidalgo at Lumea , the "weekly bazaar". Alexis Nour centered his subsequent activities in the area of human rights defense and pro-feminism.
In May , he was one of the Romanian contributors to A. For a while in , Alexis Nour was a supporter of Constructivism and a member of the small but active avant-garde clubs. Writing for M. Maxy 's Integral magazine Issue 4 , he sought to define the political purpose of Romanian Constructivism: "progress is a gradual adaptation [to the] least reduced division of labor between men.
Anything that will slow down that adaptation is immoral, and unjust, and stupid. In the final part of his career, Nour still carried on with his coverage of Russian politics for Romanians.
One of the last projects to involve Nour was a collaborative fiction work, Stafiile dragostei. Romanul celor patru "The Ghosts of Love. The Novel of the Four". Glicsman, better known as Doctor Ygrec. With its speculative undertones, most of which were introduced in the text by Doctor Ygrec,  Stafiile dragostei is sometimes described as a parody of science fiction conventions, in line with similar works by Tudor Arghezi or Felix Aderca see Romanian science fiction.
Alexis Nour". In his final years, Alexis Nour had a growing interest in the Prehistory of Southeastern Europe and the proto-Romanian polity of Dacia. The last two of Nour's scholarly works were published posthumously, in , with a Romanian Orthodox Church publishing house, at a time when Romania was ruled by the fascist National Legionary regime.
One was specifically dedicated to, and named after, the little-known "cult of Zalmoxis " Cultul lui Zalmoxis. According to historiographer Gheorghe G. Bezviconi, Nour died in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Alexis Alexei Vasile Nour. See also Boldur, p. See also Constantin, p. Series Historica , Nr. Reviste" , in Transilvania , Nr. Hidden categories: Articles with Romanian-language sources ro Webarchive template wayback links Articles with Italian-language sources it Articles containing Russian-language text Articles with French-language sources fr. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Contribute Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file.
In August , the First World War started, and , Bessarabians were mobilized and enrolled in the army of the Russian Empire, the majority in the immediate wake of Russian defeat. By March , the military actions on the Eastern Front came to a stalemate. Conferences of soldiers in the rear of the front line dominated. Many called for a Republic ; the Tsar had abdicated in March , but the Russian Provisional Government that took his place had not proclaimed the Empire a Republic until September They wanted social and economic changes, such as annulment of the privileges of the nobility, and an agrarian reform that would give the peasants the land they worked on.
Boldur, Alexandru V.
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File:Alexandru Boldur, 1937.jpg
He stood out among Germanophiles and local supporters of the Central Powers , agitating in favor of a military offensive into Bessarabia, and demanding the annexation of Transnistria. This combative stance was later overshadowed by revelations that Nour was spying for Russia's intelligence service, the Okhrana. Still active as an independent socialist in Greater Romania , Alexis Nour won additional fame as an advocate of human rights , land reform , women's suffrage and Jewish emancipation. During the final decade of his life, Nour also debuted as a novelist, but did not register significant success. His late contributions as a Thracologist were received with skepticism by the academic community.
Istoria Basarabiei Epocile vechi (Vol. I)