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Muscle dysmorphia : current insights. Dismorfia muscular Muscle dysmorphia. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Morbid concern over body image was considered, until recently, a female issue.
Nowadays, it has been viewed as a common male disorder. Muscle dysmorphia , a subtype of a body dysmorphic disorder, affects men who, despite having clear muscular hypertroph,y see themselves as frail and small. Besides being associated to major social, leisure and occupational dysfunction, muscle dysmorphia is also a risk factor for the abuse of steroids. This article describes epidemiological, etiological and clinical characteristics of muscle dysmorphia and comments on its treatment strategy.
Bigorexia: bodybuilding and muscle dysmorphia. Muscle dysmorphia is an emerging condition that primarily affects male bodybuilders. Such individuals obsess about being inadequately muscular.
Compulsions include spending hours in the gym, squandering excessive amounts of money on ineffectual sports supplements, abnormal eating patterns or even substance abuse.
In this essay, I illustrate the features of muscle dysmorphia by employing the first-person account of a male bodybuilder afflicted by this condition. I briefly outline the history of bodybuilding and examine whether the growth of this sport is linked to a growing concern with body image amongst males. I suggest that muscle dysmorphia may be a new expression of a common pathology shared with the eating disorders.
Since , there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia , a condition underpinned by people's beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scientific communities.
Much of this empirical interest has surveyed nonclinical samples, and there is limited understanding of people with the condition beyond knowledge about their characteristics. Much of the existing knowledge about people with the condition is unsurprising and inherent in the definition of the disorder, such as dissatisfaction with muscularity and adherence to muscle -building activities.
Only recently have investigators started to explore questions beyond these limited tautological findings that may give rise to substantial knowledge advances, such as the examination of masculine and feminine norms. There is limited understanding of additional topics such as etiology, prevalence, nosology, prognosis, and treatment.
Further, the evidence is largely based on a small number of unstandardized case reports and descriptive studies involving small samples , which are largely confined to Western North American, British, and Australian males. Although much research has been undertaken since the term " muscle dysmorphia " entered the psychiatric lexicon in , there remains tremendous scope for knowledge advancement.
A primary task in the short term is for investigators to examine the extent to which the condition exists among well-defined populations to help determine the justification for research funding relative to other public health issues. A greater variety of research questions and designs may contribute to a broader and more robust knowledge base than currently exists. Future work will help clinicians assist a group of people whose quality of life and health are placed at risk by their muscular preoccupation.
Further, the evidence is largely based on a small number of unstandardized case reports and descriptive studies involving small samples, which are largely confined to Western North American, British, and Australian males. A greater variety of research questions and designs may contribute to a broader and more robust knowledge base. Examined symptoms of muscle dysmorphia MD , a variation of the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia, among college students.
Surveys indicated that MD symptomatology appears in the general population and among both sexes. MD significantly related to eating disorder pathology and depression, and to some degree to impaired social support.
Muscle dysmorphia : a South African sample. It has recently been suggested that muscle dysmorphia , a pathological preoccupation with muscularity, is a subtype of body dysmorphic disorder BDD. There are, however, few studies of the phenomenology of this putative entity. Twenty-eight amateur competitive body builders in the Western Cape, South Africa, were studied using a structured diagnostic interview that incorporated demographic data, body-building activities and clinical questions focusing on muscle dysmorphia and BDD.
There was a high rate of muscle dysmorphia in the sample Use of the proposed diagnostic criteria for muscle dysmorphia indicated that this is a common and relevant entity. Its conceptualization as a subtype of BDD seems valid. The disorder deserves additional attention from both clinicians and researchers.
Muscle dysmorphia is a recently described psychiatric disorder, characterized by a pathological preoccupation with muscle size. In spite of their huge muscles , muscle dysmorphia sufferers believe that they are insufficiently large and muscular therefore would like to be bigger and more muscular. Male bodybuilders are at high-risk for the disorder. The nosological classification of muscle dysmorphia has been changed over the years. However, consensus has not emerged so far. Most of the ongoing debate has conceptualized muscle dysmorphia as an eating disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder.
There are a number of arguments for and againts. In the present study the authors do not take a position on the diagnostic classification of muscle dysmorphia. The purpose of the study is to review the present approaches relating to the diagnostic classification of muscle dysmporphia. Many different questionnaires were developed for the assessment of muscle dysmorphia. Currently, there is a lack of assessment methods measuring muscle dysmorphia symptoms in Hungary.
As a secondary purpose the study also presents the Hungarian version of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale Mayville et al. Muscle dysmorphia in Hungarian non-competitive male bodybuilders. Muscle dysmorphia MD has been described as a male body image disorder, characterized by a pathological preoccupation with muscle size. The aim of the study was to examine the MD features, eating disorder characteristics and body attitudes in non-competitive male bodybuilders in a Hungarian sample.
Sixty male bodybuilders and 60 undergraduate university students completed the self-report questionnaires of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale, the Body Attitude Test and the Eating Disorders Inventory. MD was associated with current bodybuilding activity, higher ideal body weight and eating disorder characteristics. Moreover, current selfreported steroid users displayed higher tendency for MD symptoms than self-reported steroid non-users.
Results emphasize the relationship between MD symptoms, eating disorder characteristics and steroid use. MD and body image related concerns among men could be a wide-spread phenomena also in the Central-Eastern European region.
Muscle dysmorphia : methodological issues, implications for research. Muscle dysmorphia is a male-dominated, body image-related psychological condition. Despite continued investigation, contention surrounds the nosological status of this disorder.
The aim of this article was to review the literature on muscle dysmorphia to provide a qualitative account of methodological issues that may inhibit our understanding. Key areas relating to non-standardized participant groups, measuring instruments, and terminology were identified as potentially inhibiting symptom coherence and diagnostic reliability. New measuring instruments validated with clinical samples and carefully described participant groups, standardized terminology, and a greater emphasis on prospective longitudinal research with specific sub groups of the weight training community would be of interest to the field.
Presence of muscle dysmorphia symptomology among male weightlifters. Limited research exists on muscle dysmorphia MD in men and in nonclinical populations.
The current study evaluated types of body image disturbance among male weightlifters. Latent class analysis of 8 measures of body image disturbance revealed 5 independent types of respondents: Dysmorphic, Muscle Concerned, Fat Concerned, Normal Behavioral, and Normal. One-way analysis of variance of independent measures of body image disturbance and associated psychopathology confirmed significant differences between groups.
The Dysmorphic group reported a pattern of body image disturbance consistent with MD by displaying a high overall level of body image disturbance, symptoms of associated psychopathology, steroid use, and appearance-controlling behavior.
Findings generally supported classifying MD as a subtype of body dysmorphic disorder and an obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder. Implications for studying body image disturbance in male weightlifters, and further evaluation of the MD diagnostic criteria are discussed. Our study explored the contribution of gender role stress GRS and sociocultural appearance demands to symptoms of muscle dysmorphia MD in a college sample of women and men.
Protein intake was calculated and was greater than 1. Analyzing the other nutrients, results show that the proportion of carbohydrates and fats and their percentages by degree of instauration are within the recommendations except cholesterol which exceeds and the amount of dietary fiber that is slightly lower.
In relation to micronutrients are within the recommendations in all cases except iodine which is slightly lower in MD. All rights reserved. Influence of socioeconomic factors in muscle dysmorphia. Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction and objective: In muscle dysmorphia MD the patient thinks he is smaller and less muscular than he really is.
As in other addictive diseases, its prevention and early diagnosis are the key to avoid associated disorders. It is established as an objective to determine if there are associated socio-demographic factors. The main variable was the presence of symptoms of DM using the muscle appearance satisfaction scale 44 patients and the secondary variables were age, coexistence, children, educational level and monthly income.
Significance is not observed with the variables having children, educational level or economic income. In the binary logistic regression these meanings are lost, although the graphic representation of the probability in relation with age seems to be a risk factor, as well as living with the parents or as a couple. Conclusion: Among men who practice bodybuilding, it is usually a risk to suffer MD , to be younger. Symptom characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity among males with muscle dysmorphia.
Muscle dysmorphia has been described as a disorder in which individuals are pathologically preoccupied with their muscularity. This study was designed to further investigate the symptom characteristics and psychiatric conditions associated with the disorder. Structured and semistructured interviews were administered, as well as survey measures. Relative to controls, males with current muscle dysmorphia experienced more aversive symptoms related to the appearance of their bodies, including more often thinking about their muscularity, dissatisfaction with appearance, appearance checking, bodybuilding dependence, and functional impairment.
Higher rates of mood and anxiety disorders were found among individuals with a history of muscle dysmorphia relative to individuals with no history of muscle dysmorphia. The findings suggest that muscle dysmorphia can be distinguished from normal weight lifting on a number of clinical dimensions.
Muscle dysmorphia appears to be comorbid with other psychiatric conditions. Limitations of the current study and directions for future research are considered. Convergent validity was also tested. The 2 nd study consisted of male non-competitive bodybuilders and weight lifters and elite level powerlifters and bodybuilders. The 3 rd study consisted of male and female bodybuilders and weight lifters.
Reliability estimates Cronbach's a ranged from 0. Much of the scale validation was focused on construct validity, however, correlations with the MDI's subscales and the Training Dependency subscale of the Bodybuilding Dependence Scale and the Drive for Thinness subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory provided evidence of convergent validity also.
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